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Wampanoag I ScFr - História

Wampanoag I ScFr - História


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Wampanoag I

(ScFr: dp. 4.215; 1. 355 '; b. 45'2 "; dr. 19'; s. 18 k .; a. 10 8" sb., 2 100-pdrs., 2 24-pdr. Como ., 2 12-pdr. Como., 1 60-par. R. Pivt .; cl. Wampanoag)

Wampanoag - uma fragata de parafuso - foi colocada em 3 de agosto de 1863 pelo New York Navy Yard, N.Y .; lançado em 15 de dezembro de 1864, patrocinado pela Srta. Case, filha do capitão Augustus Ludlow Case, segundo no comando do estaleiro da Marinha; e comissionado em 17 de setembro de 1867, o capitão J. W. A. ​​Nicholson no comando.

A invasão do comércio pelo CSS Alabama e pelo CSS Florida, ambos construídos em pátios ingleses, atingiu um ponto em 1863 em que as relações pacíficas continuadas entre os Estados Unidos e a Grã-Bretanha foram seriamente prejudicadas. Como resultado, o Congresso respondeu autorizando a construção de uma nova classe de fragatas de parafuso como parte do projeto de lei de compras navais daquele ano. Essas embarcações, projetadas para serem as mais rápidas do mundo, destinavam-se ao uso em operações de ataque e fuga contra portos britânicos e comércio em caso de guerra. Wampanoag era o navio líder desta classe.

Wampanoag continha inúmeras características de design sem precedentes na construção naval americana. Seu casco - projetado pelo arquiteto de veleiro B. F. Delano - era incomumente longo e estreito em relação à viga da embarcação. Seu maquinário, desenvolvido pelo polêmico engenheiro naval B. Isherwood, era único por sua máquina a vapor com engrenagens, em que máquinas de movimento lento acopladas a engrenagens de propulsão de movimento rápido. Um debate tremendo causado por este projeto atrasou a construção, impedindo que Wampanoag fosse concluído a tempo de servir na Guerra Civil.

A fragata parafuso finalmente deixou Nova York para testes de mar em 7 de fevereiro de 1868. Em 11 de fevereiro, ela começou os testes de velocidade, correndo em tempo ruim de Barnegat Light, NJ, para Tybee Island, Geórgia. Ela percorreu a distância de 728 estatutos milhas em 38 horas para uma velocidade média sustentada de 16,6 nós, chegando a 17,75 nós. Outra embarcação naval, o cruzador americano Charleston, não igualou esse recorde por 21 anos.

De 22 de fevereiro de 1868 a 8 de abril, o Wampanoag foi implantado como nau capitânia da Frota do Atlântico Norte. Em 6 de maio de 1868, ela descomissionou no New York Navy Yard. Wampanoag foi renomeado para Flórida em 15 de maio de 1869.

A polêmica gerada pelo projeto não convencional da fragata atingiu o auge em 1869, quando uma comissão naval examinou e condenou a embarcação. O contra-almirante R. M. Goldsborough, o Comodoro Charles S. Boggs e os Engenheiros E. D. Robie, John W. Moore e Isaac Newton consideraram o navio inaceitável para serviço ativo na Marinha. Eles reclamaram de seus espaços de maquinário incomumente grandes, alto consumo de carvão e encontraram uma falha particular em sua largura estreita em relação ao seu comprimento. A comissão disse que isso causou movimentos desordenados e esforço excessivo do navio. Como resultado, a Flórida permaneceu normal em Nova York por cinco anos antes de partir em 6 de março de 1874, com destino a New London, Connecticut, para se tornar um navio de recebimento e armazenamento na estação naval de lá

A Flórida permaneceu em New London, apodrecendo, até fevereiro de 1886. Ela foi vendida, em New York, em 27 de fevereiro de 1886 para Edwin LeBars.


As unidades SCFR respondem ao incêndio tardio da estrutura

Pouco antes das 21h00 na quarta-feira, 19 de maio, unidades do Stafford County Fire and Rescue (SCFR) foram despachadas para um relato de incêndio em uma estrutura no bloco 00 de Red Bud Circle perto de Embrey Mill Road. As primeiras unidades que chegaram marcaram o local menos de cinco minutos depois e relataram fumaça forte saindo da garagem anexa de uma casa unifamiliar. Condições de fumaça também foram relatadas em toda a residência.

Havia oito ocupantes na residência na época, seis dos quais viviam lá. Todos foram capazes de se auto-evacuar antes da chegada das unidades e nenhum relatou ferimentos. O primeiro foi marcado sob controle em menos de 15 minutos. Alarmes de fumaça estavam presentes e funcionando no momento do incêndio.

O Escritório do Corpo de Bombeiros do Condado de Stafford determinou que o incêndio teve origem na garagem e foi acidental. A residência está temporariamente inabitável e os residentes negaram assistência da Cruz Vermelha americana.

As unidades SCFR foram atendidas no local pelos Serviços de Emergência e Bombeiros Quantico


400 anos após o ‘primeiro dia de ação de graças’, a tribo que alimentou os peregrinos continua a lutar por suas terras em meio a outra epidemia

Q uando Paula Peters estava na segunda série na Filadélfia em meados da década de 1960, ouvindo um professor falar sobre a colônia de Plymouth e o Mayflower, um estudante perguntou o que aconteceu com os nativos americanos que ajudaram os peregrinos a se estabelecerem, os Wampanoag. A professora disse que estavam todos mortos.

& # 8220Quando ela mencionou que & # 8217ramos todos mortos, foi devastador & # 8221 Peters, 61, lembrou-se da TIME. & # 8220Eu levantei minha mão e disse não, que & # 8217 não é verdade, eu & # 8217 sou um wampanoag e ainda estou aqui. Eu não sabia o suficiente na época, como um aluno da segunda série, para poder desafiá-la, mas acho que eu desafiei aquela professora da segunda série desde então. Parte do meu ser diário é dizer às pessoas que ainda estamos aqui. & # 8221

Desde então, Peters, um membro da tribo Mashpee Wampanoag, tem promovido a educação sobre a história real por trás do feriado de Ação de Graças. Ela e seu filho ajudaram a incorporar a perspectiva Wampanoag em eventos em torno do 400º aniversário do desembarque dos Pilgrims & # 8217 em Cape Cod neste mês. Cinco semanas depois de atracar o Mayflower em 1620, os peregrinos partiram em busca de terras mais adequadas para o cultivo que desejavam e acabaram em Patuxet, o nome Wampanoag para a área onde estabeleceram a colônia Plymouth. Esse contato com os europeus & # 8220 trouxe pragas e doenças e quase nos exterminou, então & # 8217s não é tanto um motivo para comemoração & # 8221 diz Kitty Hendricks-Miller, 62, coordenadora de educação indígena na tribo Mashpee Wampanoag. Para muitos Wampanoag, o Dia de Ação de Graças sempre foi considerado um dia de luto por causa dessa epidemia e dos séculos de políticas de remoção de índios americanos que se seguiram.

Muitos Wampanoag esperavam que o 400º aniversário do desembarque do Mayflower fosse um evento estimulante para lembrar às pessoas que os Wampanoag ainda existem, mas muitos dos eventos comemorativos foram cancelados, adiados ou movidos online devido à pandemia de COVID-19. O wampanoag com quem a TIME conversou expressou um sentimento de & # 8220eerie & # 8221 d & eacutej & agrave vu, maravilhado com o quanto não mudou em 400 anos em alguns aspectos. A tribo está no meio de uma luta pela sobrevivência em duas frentes: lutando para sobreviver durante uma pandemia global e lutando para manter o controle de suas terras.

Quatrocentos anos atrás, os Wampanoag estavam se recuperando de uma epidemia que quase varreu o vilarejo de Patuxet. Em 1616, antes da chegada dos Peregrinos & # 8217, uma doença ainda misteriosa causou uma epidemia que dizimou cerca de 75% a 90% das 69 aldeias que constituíam a Nação Wampanoag naquela época. Sem o conhecimento moderno de como as doenças se espalham, os Wampanoags atribuíram isso aos espíritos sobrenaturais e à pólvora.

& # 8220A epidemia que dizimou o povo Wampanoag pouco antes da chegada do Mayflower varreu a maioria de sua população, & # 8221 diz David J. Silverman, historiador e autor de Esta terra é a terra deles: os índios Wampanoag, a colônia de Plymouth e a turbulenta história do dia de ação de graças. Inicialmente, & # 8220 muitos nativos associaram armas de fogo a doenças epidêmicas porque o que eles sabem é que quando os europeus aparecem e disparam suas armas, logo em seguida, pessoas começam a morrer de doenças epidêmicas. & # 8221

Esses surtos de doenças seriam comuns em áreas Wampanoag pelos próximos 30 anos ou mais. Os europeus viram a dizimação da população nativa como algo semelhante a & # 8220.Deus está varrendo os pagãos & # 8221 Silverman diz.

& # 8220Isso é parte do que criou a vulnerabilidade que permitiu aos passageiros do Mayflower ter um lugar para estar em Massachusetts & # 8221, diz Hartman Deetz, 45, um artista, educador e ativista Mashpee Wampanoag. No início do século 17, algumas estimativas dizem que havia mais de 40.000 pessoas Wampanoag na Nova Inglaterra. Agora, estima-se que haja 4.000-5.000. Hoje eles constituem duas tribos reconhecidas federalmente, Mashpee e Aquinnah & mdash as duas maiores comunidades de Wampanoag & mdashas, ​​bem como várias outras tribos reconhecidas por Massachusetts.

É um tanto irônico que no 400º aniversário de reconhecimento deste ponto da história, sejamos forçados a ficar em casa e ficar separados e sentir esse medo e incerteza e algumas das coisas com as quais meus ancestrais estavam lidando de uma forma muito mais severa moda, & # 8221 adiciona Aquinnah Wampanoag Vereador Jonathan James-Perry, 44, que aparece em uma exposição online Ouvindo vozes wampanoag: depois de 1620 hospedado pelo Museu Peabody de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Harvard.

As histórias de doenças que devastam a população Wampanoag, que refletem tão de perto as da pandemia moderna, são apenas um dos muitos aspectos que foram deixados de fora da história do Dia de Ação de Graças nos Estados Unidos.

Na verdade, tudo o que sabemos sobre a refeição conhecida como & # 8220 the First Thanksgiving & # 8221 em 1621 vem de alguns parágrafos escritos respectivamente por figuras proeminentes na colônia de Plymouth, Edward Winslow e governador William Bradford, sugerindo aos especialistas que não foi & # 8217t um grande negócio no momento. Muito do significado da refeição foi acrescentado no século 19, quando a nação foi dividida por causa da escravidão e da Guerra Civil, como uma oportunidade para encorajar os americanos a se reunirem em um feriado federal. Muito do significado por trás da refeição foi criado ao longo dos anos, gerando muitos mitos e equívocos que os Wampanoags e os nativos americanos em geral vêm desmascarando desde então.

& # 8220Ser um wampanoag nesta época do ano, é sempre surpreendente que contemos essa história dos peregrinos e dos índios, e ainda assim o povo Wampanoag é muitas vezes deixado de fora dessa narrativa. Não nos foi dada a decência de sequer ter o nosso nome mencionado como um povo, & # 8221 diz Deetz.

Linda Coombs, 71, educadora do museu Aquinnah Wampanoag que também participou de Ouvindo vozes wampanoag: depois de 1620 e informa os professores sobre as perspectivas dos índios americanos na história dos EUA, acredita que a violência após aquela refeição mítica de Ação de Graças deve ser enfrentada de frente. E apenas gostaria que as pessoas soubessem disso porque esta história ainda não é bem conhecida, mas foi isso que levou para a América ser o que é hoje e para as pessoas se sentarem para o jantar de Ação de Graças. & # 8221

No final de março, no auge da pandemia de coronavírus, o Departamento do Interior dos Estados Unidos anunciou que não havia base para a tribo de 321 acres de terra tribal em Mashpee e Taunton, Massachusetts, ter status de reserva porque a tribo supostamente não tinha # 8217para atender à definição de indiano. Em junho, um juiz federal chamou o Departamento do Interior & rsquos decisão & ldquoarbitrária, caprichosa, um abuso de discrição e contrária à lei & # 8221 e disse que a agência teria que reanalisar a questão de saber se a tribo tem direito a terras de reserva, enquanto corrige todos os erros que levaram à sua decisão original. Mas a questão não foi resolvida e, enquanto a tribo aguarda uma nova decisão da Interior & rsquos, espera proteção permanente por meio de uma lei do Congresso. Ele também tem um aliado no presidente eleito Joe Biden, cuja plataforma de nações tribais indica que ele está do lado da tribo Mashpee Wampanoag e mdashand Biden está supostamente examinando um nativo americano para ser secretário do Departamento do Interior, o que também poderia ajudar.

A tribo Mashpee também teve seus próprios desafios internos, já que seu presidente foi preso em 13 de novembro e acusado de aceitar subornos em conexão com os planos de construir um cassino.

& # 8220Estamos mais uma vez 400 anos depois, em meio a uma pandemia e em meio a uma grilagem de terras e discussões sobre a jurisdição e a capacidade da lei colonial de reconhecer os direitos das pessoas que estão sendo colonizadas & # 8221, diz Deetz.

Os wampanoags também têm uma refeição em família no feriado federal, mas é uma das várias ações de graças que eles celebram ao longo do ano, para homenagear colheitas diferentes. Peters geralmente mantém uma & # 8220 fogueira de oração & # 8221 em seu quintal, reunindo-se ao redor de uma fogueira, oferecendo tabaco (colocando-o no fogo), onde orações são feitas para lembrar os ancestrais e expressar gratidão em geral. Este ano, por causa de COVID-19, a reunião de sua família e # 8217s será menor do que o normal.

O 51º Dia Nacional de Luto anual ainda ocorrerá em Plymouth Rock. Geralmente atrai mais de 1.000 participantes no Dia de Ação de Graças, mas este ano os organizadores estão incentivando as pessoas que não moram nas proximidades a assistir à transmissão ao vivo para reduzir o risco de espalhar o COVID-19. A pandemia COVID-19 apenas agravou o sentimento de perda à medida que os participantes se lembram de outros americanos nativos que morreram de coronavírus, especialmente na nação Navajo.

Mahtowin Munro, 61, co-líder Lakota dos Índios Americanos Unidos da Nova Inglaterra, começará o jejum ao anoitecer do dia anterior. Ela espera que, assim como o movimento Black Lives Matter aumentou a conscientização sobre a supremacia branca, o racismo e a atenção às perspectivas negras, o evento seja um lembrete para ouvir os povos indígenas. "

Esses eventos são oportunidades para falar sobre as maneiras como as pessoas estão & # 8220 prosperando & # 8221 não apenas sobrevivendo. Hendricks-Miller não gosta tanto de usar a palavra sobrevivência. & # 8220Nós & # 8217 ainda estamos aqui & # 8221 ela prefere dizer & # 8220considerando tudo o que & # 8217evemos. É como um mantra retumbante, ainda estamos aqui. & # 8221


“Nossa” história Wampanoag History Exhibit revela novo capítulo: O retorno de Tisquantum

“Nossa” história: 400 anos de história Wampanoag, uma exposição educacional e cultural sobre a história e as tradições da tribo Wampanoag, revelou um novo capítulo “Retorno de Tisquantum” no mês passado. O novo capítulo foi oficialmente revelado no Museu Tantaquidgeon em Uncasville, Connecticut. A nova seção apresenta três painéis e um vídeo de 7 minutos retratando o retorno de Tisquantum (conhecido como Squanto) à vila de Patuxet logo após a Grande Morte de 1616-1619.

A exposição é aberta ao público no Museu Tantaquidgeon até 20 de dezembro. Você também pode assistir ao vídeo online em www.mittark.com.

“Our” Story é uma exposição itinerante interativa, contada na voz nativa, que mostra eventos históricos que tiveram um impacto significativo na tribo Wampanoag, sua relação com os peregrinos do Mayflower e a fundação da Colônia de Plymouth, eventos fundamentais que moldou os primórdios da América. A Plymouth 400 trabalhou em estreita colaboração com seu Comitê Consultivo Wampanoag, com representação das tribos Aquinnah Wampanoag e Mashpee Wampanoag, na criação da exposição.

A cada ano, um novo tema é adicionado à exposição - a primeira instalação estreou em 2014 com “Captured 1614, uma história de fundo crítica para a colonização e as raízes do feriado americano, Thanksgiving. “The Messenger Runner” adicionou um novo contexto sobre as tradições de comunicação da tribo Wampanoag. O "The Great Dying" retrata os efeitos catastróficos de uma praga que devastou a nação Wampanoag entre 1616 e 1619. "Powwow" foi lançado em novembro de 2017. Ele explora as tradições em torno de reunir e agradecer com uma mistura de vídeo interativo contemporâneo arte nativa e fotos coletadas pelos powwows Mashpee e Aquinnah, realizados anualmente em julho e setembro, respectivamente. Em novembro de 2018, o capítulo “Governança” foi adicionado com foco no estilo único de governança praticado pelos Wampanoags e outras nações algonquinas. Esse estilo era tão atraente para os pais fundadores dos Estados Unidos que muitos elementos estão refletidos na Constituição. E agora, o capítulo 6 “Squanto Returns” está agora em exibição no Tantaquidgeon Museum em Uncasville, Connecticut. Sequestrado em 1614, saiba como Squanto finalmente encontrou o caminho de casa e para onde ele deveria voltar.

A Plymouth 400 contratou uma equipe de design nativo para criar "Nossa" História para garantir que a exposição fosse totalmente representativa da história dos povos indígenas da Nova Inglaterra. O Indian Spiritual and Cultural Training Council Inc. e a SmokeSygnals Marketing and Communications conceituaram, pesquisaram e produziram "Our" Story, e membros das tribos Mashpee e Aquinnah Wampanoag retrataram figuras históricas para a exposição. A criação desta exposição está alinhada com a missão do Plymouth 400 de criar uma comemoração que seja historicamente precisa e culturalmente inclusiva, já que os povos indígenas recusaram a participação ou enfrentaram deturpação e até mesmo a omissão de eventos de aniversário anteriores.

“As percepções do período inicial de Plymouth ficaram gravadas na história americana quando o presidente Lincoln usou o símbolo icônico do povo Wampanoag e dos colonos ingleses festejando juntos em 1621 como uma representação de cooperação enquanto ele proclamava nosso feriado nacional, o Dia de Ação de Graças”, disse Michele Pecoraro, executiva Diretor da Plymouth 400. “A Plymouth 400 está empenhada em criar uma comemoração que seja historicamente precisa, o que significa abordar as realidades da história que não refletem as representações simplificadas e muitas vezes imprecisas do Primeiro Dia de Ação de Graças. Esta exposição tem como objetivo criar conversas em torno dessas realidades cruciais em nossa história de uma forma informativa e autêntica, honrando as contribuições de ambas as culturas e reconhecendo as complexidades de suas relações ”.


Wampanoag I ScFr - História

A tribo Chappaquiddick Wampanoag é uma tribo histórica de Massachusetts. Suas terras ancestrais são Chappaquiddick Island, Cape Poge e Muskeget. Os Chappaquiddick Wampanoag eram uma tribo na época do primeiro contato, quando os Estados Unidos se tornaram um país em 1776 e quando Massachusetts tornou-se parte da União Federal em 1789. A tribo tinha duas áreas de reserva em Chappaquiddick até o final do século XIX. Hoje, os Chappaquiddicks vivem em Martha’s Vineyard, a maior ilha próxima a Chappaquiddick, no continente em Massachusetts e em Rhode Island (terra natal ancestral da nação Wampanoag) e em todos os Estados Unidos. A tribo apresentou várias petições à Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts e ao Estado de Massachusetts durante um período de anos antes de 1869. Os cidadãos tribais visitam e usam as terras tradicionais na Ilha de Chappaquiddick, e muitos deles são ou participaram de petições para registrar terras por não índios nos últimos 20 anos.

Nossa tribo tinha duas reservas em Chappaquiddick até que o Massachusetts Indian Enfranchisement Act de 1869 foi aprovado. Naquela época, nossas terras foram atribuídas a indivíduos Chappaquiddick Wampanoag e a Ilha Chappaquiddick foi absorvida pela cidade de Edgartown. Nossas reservas estão documentadas como a Reserva de Cleared Lands em North Neck e a Reserva de Woodlands ao sul de Chappaquiddick Road com mais de 800 acres.

Temos uma extensa história legislativa. Nossa tribo entrou com petições, atos e resoluções para resolver as queixas, questões e preocupações de Chappaquiddick com a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts e o Estado de Massachusetts de 1692 a 1870. Embora nossa terra natal ancestral seja a Ilha de Chappaquiddick, nosso povo rotineiramente interagia com Aquinnah, Mashpee e outros no continente. Todos os nossos membros tribais registrados descendem de indivíduos no Relatório Briggs de 1849 ou no Relatório Earle de 1859.

Datas selecionadas:

Pakeponesso nasceu por volta de 1595 Sachem de Chappaquiddick, Cape Poge e Muskeget

1611 - Epenow sequestrado - Epenow foi sequestrado do Cabo Poge e levado para a Inglaterra. Em 1614, Epenow convenceu os ingleses de que havia OURO em seu país e, após sua chegada, ele fugiu de volta para a ilha.

1621 - Epenow assina o tratado com os peregrinos - Epenow, representando Capawock, foi um dos Sachems que assinou o tratado em Plymouth com Massasoit.

1642 - Thomas Mayhew, Sr. comprou reivindicações sobrepostas da terra que agora é o condado de Dukes de duas pessoas em 1641, nomeou-se governador de Martha’s Vineyard em 1642 e começou a comprar terras de vários indianos. Naquela época, Pakeponessoo era o sachem de Chappaquiddick. Pakeponessoo e seu sucessor Seeknout não venderiam terras aos colonos. Eles equilibraram as necessidades dos nativos e do colono por meio de arranjos que permitiram que os cerca de 140 Wampanoag de Chappaquiddick e os cerca de 200 colonos de Edgartown existissem juntos.

Sachem Pakeponesso - repreendeu Hiacoomes por se associar com os cristãos

1651 - assembléia cristã em Chappaquiddick dirigido por Hiacoomes 1651, igreja estabelecida para "reunião de membros".

1663 - Pakeponesso concede terras a Thomas Mayhew - Natick

Por volta de 1681 - Seeknout, o filho mais novo de Pakeponesso torna-se sachem após a morte de seu pai

1691 - Joshua Seeknout - neto de Pakepanesso é sachem de 1692 até sua morte em 1716 ele vende a Ilha Muskeget para Mayhew em 1692.

1726 a 1788 petições foram submetidas por nosso povo ao Governador e ao Conselho Geral citando invasão de terras, venda ilegal de terras e comportamento impróprio por parte dos tutores.

1772/1773 Petição Chappaquiddick Wampanoag para a Inglaterra - Uma petição foi entregue em mãos por Simon Porrage (um representante Wampanoag) ao rei George III da Grã-Bretanha. Ele ordenou que as queixas fossem tratadas, mas Boston não deu ouvidos.

1788 Land Division - Em 1788, a porção da Ilha que não havia sido vendida antes dessa data foi dividida pela colônia entre os colonos e os Chappaquiddicks. Eles obtiveram o “solo arenoso sombrio” e retiveram apenas 1/5 da ilha. Eles tinham duas reservas, a reserva de Clearedlands em North Neck e a reserva de Wood Lands.

1828 Set Off - Em 1828, as terras tribais foram novamente divididas pelos guardiões (sob o sistema de reserva tribal em MA) entre nossas famílias. Essa divisão segue uma solicitação da Chappaquiddicks para que as terras sejam divididas por unidades familiares. As terras comuns

permaneceram e certos locais, como os pântanos de cranberry, permaneceram para o uso da tribo.

Vida durante 1800 - Ao longo de 1800, Chappaquiddicks suportou dificuldades sob o sistema de guardiões. O relatório Earle retrata um povo lutando para sobreviver. Eles acham difícil viver sozinhos na terra e estão divididos sobre se queriam o direito de se tornar parte da sociedade em geral e não mais ser "tutelados do Estado".

Atividade LEGISLATIVA por vários anos - Atos e Resoluções de Massachusetts de 1692 a 1859

Relatório Briggs de 1849 - Chappaquiddick Wampanoag estão listados

Relatório John Milton Earle de 1859 - Chappaquiddick Wampanoag estão listados

Lei de Massachusetts para franquear índios de 1869 - Quando as terras foram distribuídas de acordo com a Lei de Massachusetts de 1869, as terras de Chappaquiddick tornaram-se parte de Edgartown em vez de se tornarem uma cidade separada. As terras de Mashpee e Aquinnah tornaram-se cidades separadas. As pessoas de Mashpee e Aquinnah ocuparam posições de liderança nas cidades recém-estabelecidas.

Início de 1900 - Reuniões anuais em North Neck em Chappaquiddick no local dos lotes de fitas. Por vários anos durante os anos 1900, membros de famílias tribais que vivem no continente passam longos períodos nos meses de verão com os Handy, Healis e Rockers que vivem em Oak Bluffs.

Década de 1940 - Vários locais na Ilha de Chappaquiddick, incluindo South Beach e Cape Pogue, usados ​​extensivamente para treinamento de bombas de mergulho e outras operações de munições durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial por aviões militares da Estação Aérea Naval de Quonset Point em Quonset, R.I. Veja e leia mais aqui.

1950 a 1980 - Indivíduos Chappaquiddick receberam cheques para lotes de terras indígenas Chappaquiddick. Indivíduos ocupando certos lotes estavam liberando títulos usando os procedimentos do tribunal de terras de Massachusetts.

Reivindicações de terras selecionadas:

1977 - Epps Case - Veja o caso aqui.

1981 - “Uma coalizão de seis Tribos Wampanoag entra com ação contra o Governo Federal - em um esforço para recuperar terras. os Chappaquiddicks, Christiantowners, Herring Ponders, Mashpees, Troys e Gay Headers. Robert C. Hahn, advogado dos índios, disse que o processo sustentava que a soberania sobre as terras indígenas foi passada do estado para o governo federal após 1789, o que significa que a propriedade tribal não poderia ser entregue ou tomada sem o consentimento federal. ” New York Times, 19 de dezembro de 1981.

1995 - A tribo Chappaquiddick da Wampanoag Indian Nation Corp é criada por líderes tribais, uma corporação comunitária sem fins lucrativos que está subordinada à tribo Chappaquiddick da nação Wampanoag.

2015 - Placa do cemitério indígena Chappaquiddick - dedicado na anual Chappaquiddick Wampanoag. A coleta da placa foi erguida pela Comissão do Cemitério de Edgartown.

1995 até o presente - Encontros anuais de julho na Ilha de Chappaquiddick.


O acampamento Pokanoket


Estamos escrevendo em nome dos Estudos Nativos Americanos e Indígenas (NAIS) em Brown, uma iniciativa interdisciplinar de professores e alunos interessados ​​em ensino e pesquisa que busca aprender mais e aumentar a compreensão das tradições culturais e experiências políticas dos indígenas Povos (especialmente no hemisfério ocidental) por meio de lentes históricas e contemporâneas.

Temos certeza que agora muitos de vocês ouviram que um grupo de nativos ocupou uma parte das terras de Brown em Bristol. Houve várias notícias e sabemos que as postagens nas redes sociais também estão fluindo. A Universidade emitiu um comunicado (atualizado continuamente). Respeitamos e apreciamos as questões mais amplas de expropriação e soberania tribal que estão em jogo aqui, e temos o compromisso de continuar a nos comunicar e agir de maneira respeitosa e significativa para todas as partes envolvidas. Esta é uma situação muito mais complicada do que os artigos demonstram, e é claro que a maioria das pessoas que os compartilham não está ciente das nuances, portanto, gostaríamos de fornecer um pouco mais de contexto.

No estado de Massachusetts, há duas nações Wampanoag reconhecidas federalmente - a tribo Wampanoag de Aquinnah e a tribo Mashpee Wampanoag. Aqui em Rhode Island, a tribo indígena Narragansett em South County é a única tribo reconhecida federalmente. Embora haja uma longa história de apagamento e assimilação forçada de povos nativos no Nordeste, o que significa que muitas comunidades tribais foram apagadas da história, a Tribo Pokanoket não é reconhecida pelo governo federal ou pelo estado e, mais importante, não é reconhecida por as outras comunidades Wampanoag reconhecidas federalmente.

Os Pokanoket são um grupo que afirma descendência da linha do Rei Philip (Metacom) após a Guerra do Rei Philip, e muitos membros do grupo podem muito bem ter ancestrais nativos. No entanto, de acordo com os registros históricos usados ​​por Mashpee para a revitalização de sua língua, as famílias Pokanoket foram acolhidas por Mashpee após a guerra e se tornaram parte de sua comunidade. Há uma diferença técnica delicada, porém importante, entre manter a ancestralidade nativa e manter o status de nação, e isso é o cerne da questão aqui.

Como todas as universidades nos Estados Unidos, a Brown University está em terras indígenas e parte do objetivo da Iniciativa NAIS é ajudar a Brown a reconhecer produtivamente esse relacionamento e as responsabilidades que ele carrega. Nas últimas décadas, Brown fez progressos graduais nessa frente e está preparado para fazer muito mais nos próximos anos com nossas iniciativas de estudos nativos e outros trabalhos em andamento.

Atualmente, Brown reconhece o significado cultural dos terrenos de Bristol para os povos Wampanoag e oferece acesso a qualquer nativo local (incluindo o Pokanoket) que deseje usar a terra para necessidades espirituais ou comunitárias. Os Pokanoket também trabalham com a Fazenda Mt. Hope adjacente a cada verão para administrar um acampamento de verão de base cultural na terra em questão e, além disso, hospedam um festival de colheita anual da comunidade na terra.

Organizações ativistas locais como o Coletivo FANG (principalmente um grupo anti-fraturamento) passaram a apoiar e orquestrar a causa sem chegar a Aquinnah, Mashpee, Assonet, Herring Pond Wampanoag ou Narragansett, o que é um problema. Como os Pokanoket não são reconhecidos, eles não teriam acesso a nenhuma das proteções federais ou estaduais em torno das propriedades tribais de terras e não seriam capazes de colocar a terra em confiança, a pedra angular da soberania tribal. A melhoria da administração cultural e do uso desta terra precisa envolver todas as tribos que têm laços ancestrais e espirituais com a terra.

Trabalhamos por muitos anos para encorajar Brown a reconhecer seu relacionamento e responsabilidades para com as comunidades indígenas locais, e esses relacionamentos são muito importantes para nós à medida que avançamos com nossa iniciativa NAIS. Membros de alto escalão da administração Brown entraram em contato e estão trabalhando com Aquinnah e Mashpee nessa questão, e também se encontraram com o Pokanoket atualmente no país. A esperança é que eles possam chegar a uma conclusão pacífica.

Nós respeitosamente pedimos que você não compartilhe nenhuma petição, campanha de arrecadação de fundos ou materiais patrocinados pela FANG, e que você nos faça quaisquer perguntas que possa ter antes de compartilhar informações. Temos o prazer de fornecer mais recursos sobre qualquer um dos tópicos mencionados resumidamente neste e-mail e reconhecemos que as nuances disso podem não ser completamente claras para quem está fora das comunidades nativas.


Hoje existem cerca de quatro a cinco mil Wampanoags. A maioria mora em Massachusetts, onde há duas tribos reconhecidas pelo governo federal, a Aquinnah Wampanoag e a Mashpee Wampanoag, bem como várias bandas menores em áreas como Herring Pond, Assonet e Manomet. Nas ilhas do Caribe também existem descendentes do povo Wampanoag que foram enviados como escravos após uma guerra com os ingleses na década de 1670.

Não, os Wampanoag nunca viveram nesse tipo de habitação. Uma tenda (ou tipi) é um estilo de casa construída na região das Grandes Planícies. Eles foram retratados em filmes, arte e livros por mais de cem anos, então não é surpresa que a maioria das pessoas esteja familiarizada com tendas, e não tão familiar com Wetus - o tipo de casa que os índios do Nordeste construíram.

O Wampanoag tradicional Wetus (casas) - também chamadas de cabanas em todo o Nordeste - têm forma de cúpula e são cobertas por juncos de casca de árvore ou taboa. Essas casas são adequadas ao clima e à vida aqui no Nordeste.


Índios Wampanoag

Os índios Wampanoag viveram no que hoje é conhecido como Massachusetts e Rhode Island no início do século XVII. The name means &ldquoeasterners&rdquo and at one point, their population was 12,000. Among the more famous Wampanoag chiefs were Squanto, Samoset, Metacomet, and Massasoit.

They were known to eat what is called the Three Sisters &ndash maize, beans and squash. They also were hunters-gatherers who also went fishing and ate fruits to round out their diet. They did not live in teepees or longhouses, but wetus. The wetus were doomed shaped huts made of sticks and grass. The Wampanoag spoke a language sometimes called Massachusett or Natick. Although this language has been extinct since the 1800&rsquos, there has been a movement recently to revive it based on existing texts.

Right before the Pilgrams landed in 1620, the Wampanoag Indians saw their population greatly reduced due to disease. One interesting fact that you may not know is that the tradition of Thanksgiving was adopted from the Wampanoag Indians interaction with the Pilgrims. However, Chief Metacomet, sometimes known as King Philip, declared war on the pilgrims. The growing number of English were displacing the Wampanoag Indians and converting them to their faith. Overall, King Philip felt the English were having negative affects on the ways of his tribe. The war only lasted a year, but it was the bloodiest of the Indian Wars, with most of the Wampanoag Indians and their allies, the Narraganset, being killed. Those that were not killed in war fled to other tribes and those captured were either relocated or sold into slavery. Another thing the war did was end the peaceful cohabitation of the New World and white settlers began to dominate the Native Americans.

Today, about 3,000 Wampanoag Indians still live in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. There is a reservation for the Wampanoag Indians on Martha&rsquos Vineyard that was set up by the United States government.


Wampanoag Story

A view from those who met the Pilgrims, the Wampanoag.

“In 1600 the Wampanoag probably were as many as 12,000 with 40 villages divided roughly between 8,000 on the mainland and another 4,000 on the off-shore islands of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. The three epidemics which swept across New England and the Canadian Maritimes between 1614 and 1620 were especially devastating to the Wampanoag and neighboring Massachuset with mortality in many mainland villages (i.e. Patuxet) reaching 100%. When the Pilgrims landed in 1620, fewer than 2,000 mainland Wampanoag had survived. The island Wampanoag were protected somewhat by their relative isolation and still had 3,000. At least 10 mainland villages had been abandoned after the epidemics, because there was no one left. After English settlement of Massachusetts, epidemics continued to reduce the mainland Wampanoag until there were only 1,000 by 1675. Only 400 survived King Philip’s War.

Still concentrated in Barnstable, Plymouth, and Bristol counties of southeastern Massachusetts, the Wampanoag have endured and grown slowly to their current membership of 3,000. The island communities of Wampanoag on Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket maintained a population near 700 until a fever in 1763 killed two-thirds of the Nantucket. It never recovered, and the last Nantucket died in 1855. The community Martha’s Vineyard has sustained itself by adding native peoples from the mainland and intermarriage, but by 1807 only 40 were full-bloods. Massachusetts divided the tribal lands in 1842 and ended tribal status in 1870, but the Wampanoag reorganized as the Wampanoag Nation in 1928. There are currently five organized bands: Assonet, Gay Head, Herring Pond, Mashpee, and Namasket. All have petitioned for federal and state recognition, but only Gay Head (600 members but without a reservation) has been successful (1987). The Mashpee (2,200 members) were turned down by the federal courts in 1978.

Like other Algonquin in southern New England, the Wampanoag were a horticultural people who supplemented their agriculture with hunting and fishing. Villages were concentrated near the coast during the summer to take advantage of the fishing and seafood, but after the harvest, the Wampanoag moved inland and separated into winter hunting camps of extended families. Since New England was heavily populated before 1600, these hunting territories were usually defined to avoid conflict. Ownership passed from father to son, but it was fairly easy to obtain permission to hunt in someone else’s lands. The Wampanoag were organized as a confederacy with lesser sachems and sagamores under the authority of a Grand Sachem. Although the English often referred to Wampanoag sachems as “kings,” there was nothing royal about the position beyond respect and a very limited authority. Rank had few privileges, and Wampanoag sachems worked for a living like everyone else. It should also be noted that, in the absence of a suitable male heir, it was not uncommon among the Wampanoag for a woman to become the sachem (queen or squaw-sachem)

The earliest contacts between the Wampanoag and Europeans occurred during the 1500s as fishing and trading vessels roamed the New England coast. Judging from the Wampanoag’s later attitude towards the Pilgrims, most of these encounters were friendly. Some, however, were not. European captains were known to increase profits by capturing natives to sell as slaves. Such was the case when Thomas Hunt kidnapped several Wampanoag in 1614 and later sold them in Spain. One of his victims – a Patuxet named Tisquantum (Squanto) – was purchased by Spanish monks who attempted to “civilize” him. Eventually gaining his freedom, Squanto was able to work his way to England (apparently undeterred by his recent experience with Captain Hunt) and signed on as an interpreter for a British expedition to Newfoundland. From there Squanto went back to Massachusetts, only to discover that, in his absence, epidemics had killed everyone in his village. As the last Patuxet, he remained with the other Wampanoag as a kind of ghost.

To Squanto’s tragic story must be added a second series of unlikely events. Living in Holland at the time was a small group of English religious dissenters who, because of persecution, had been forced to leave England. Concerned their children were becoming too Dutch and the possibility of a war between Holland and Spain, but still unwelcome in England, these gentle people decided to immigrate to the New World. The Virginia Company agreed to transport them to the mouth of the Hudson River, took their money, and loaded them on two ships (Speedwell and Mayflower) with other English immigrants not of their faith. The little fleet set sail in July only to have the Speedwell spring a leak 300 miles out to sea. Accompanied by the Mayflower, it barely made it back to Plymouth without sinking. Repairs failed to fix the problem, so in September everyone was crammed aboard the Mayflower, and the whole mess sent merrily on its seasick way to the New World.

Landfall occurred near Cape Cod after 65 days and a very rough passage, but strangely enough, the Mayflower’s captain, who had managed to cross the Atlantic during hurricane season, suddenly was unable to sail around some shoals and take them farther south. This forced the Pilgrims to find a place to settle in Massachusetts and try to survive a New England winter with few supplies. For the Virginia Company, there was no problem, since in 1620, Great Britain claimed the boundary of Virginia reached as far north as the present border between Maine and New Brunswick. So the Pilgrims were still in Virginia (although perhaps a little farther north than originally promised), but remembering Britain’s concern at the time about French settlement in Nova Scotia, the misplacement of the Pilgrims to New England may not have been entirely an accident.

Skipping past the signing of the Mayflower Compact, the first concerns of the new arrivals were finding something to eat and a place to settle. After anchoring off Cape Cod on November 11, 1620, a small party was sent ashore to explore. Pilgrims in every sense of the word, they promptly stumbled into a Nauset graveyard where they found baskets of corn which had been left as gifts for the deceased. The gathering of this unexpected bounty was interrupted by the angry Nauset warriors, and the hapless Pilgrims beat a hasty retreat back to their boat with little to show for their efforts. Shaken but undaunted by their welcome to the New World, the Pilgrims continued across Cape Cod Bay and decided to settle, of all places, at the site of the now-deserted Wampanoag village of Patuxet. There they sat for the next few months in crude shelters – cold, sick and slowly starving to death. Half did not survive that terrible first winter. The Wampanoag were aware of the English but chose to avoid contact them for the time being.

In keeping with the strange sequence of unlikely events, Samoset, a Pemaquid (Abenaki) sachem from Maine hunting in Massachusetts, came across the growing disaster at Plymouth. Having acquired some English from contact with English fishermen and the short-lived colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River in 1607, he walked into Plymouth in March and startled the Pilgrims with “Hello Englishmen.” Samoset stayed the night surveying the situation and left the next morning. He soon returned with Squanto. Until he succumbed to sickness and joined his people in 1622, Squanto devoted himself to helping the Pilgrims who were now living at the site of his old village. Whatever his motivations, with great kindness and patience, he taught the English the skills they needed to survive, and in so doing, assured the destruction of his own people.

Although Samoset appears to have been more important in establishing the initial relations, Squanto also served as an intermediary between the Pilgrims and Massasoit, the Grand sachem of the Wampanoag (actual name Woosamaquin or “Yellow Feather”). For the Wampanoag, the ten years previous to the arrival of the Pilgrims had been the worst of times beyond all imagination. Micmac war parties had swept down from the north after they had defeated the Penobscot during the Tarrateen War (1607-15), while at the same time the Pequot had invaded southern New England from the northwest and occupied eastern Connecticut. By far the worst event had been the three epidemics which killed 75% of the Wampanoag. In the aftermath of this disaster, the Narragansett, who had suffered relatively little because of their isolated villages on the islands of Narragansett Bay, had emerged as the most powerful tribe in the area and forced the weakened Wampanoag to pay them tribute.

Massasoit, therefore, had good reason to hope the English could benefit his people and help them end Narragansett domination. In March (1621) Massasoit, accompanied by Samoset, visited Plymouth and signed a treaty of friendship with the English giving them permission of occupy the approximately 12,000 acres of what was to become the Plymouth plantation.However, it is very doubtful Massasoit fully understood the distinction between the European concept of owning land versus the native idea of sharing it. For the moment, this was unimportant since so many of his people had died during the epidemics that New England was half-deserted. Besides, it must have been difficult for the Wampanoag to imagine how any people so inept could ever be a danger to them. The friendship and cooperation continued, and the Pilgrims were grateful enough that fall to invite Massasoit to celebrate their first harvest with them (The First Thanksgiving). Massasoit and 90 of his men brought five deer, and the feasting lasted for three days. The celebration was a little premature. During the winter of 1622, a second ship arrived unexpectedly from England, and with 40 new mouths to feed, the Pilgrims were once again starving. Forgiving the unfortunate incident in the graveyard the previous year, the Nauset sachem Aspinet brought food to Plymouth.

To the Narragansett all of this friendship between the Wampanoag and English had the appearance of a military alliance directed against them, and in 1621 they sent a challenge of arrows wrapped in a snakeskin to Plymouth. Although they could barely feed themselves and were too few for any war, the English replaced the arrows with gunpowder and returned it. While the Narragansett pondered the meaning of this strange response, they were attacked by the Pequot, and Plymouth narrowly avoided another disaster. The war with the Pequot no sooner ended than the Narragansett were fighting the Mohawk. By the time this ended, Plymouth was firmly established. Meanwhile, the relationship between the Wampanoag and English grew stronger. When Massasoit became dangerously ill during the winter of 1623, he was nursed back to health by the English. By 1632 the Narragansett were finally free to reassert their authority over the Wampanoag. Massasoit’s village at Montaup (Sowam) was attacked, but when the colonists supported the Wampanoag, the Narragansett finally were forced to abandon the effort.

After 1630 the original 102 English colonists who founded Plymouth (less than half were actually Pilgrims) were absorbed by the massive migration of the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony near Boston. Barely tolerant of other Christians, the militant Puritans were soldiers and merchants whose basic attitude towards Native Americans was not one of friendship and cooperation. Under this new leadership, the English expanded west into the Connecticut River Valley and during 1637 destroyed the powerful Pequot confederacy which opposed them. Afterwards they entered into an alliance with the Mohegan upsetting the balance of power. By 1643 the Mohegan had defeated the Narragansett in a war, and with the full support of Massachusetts, emerged as the dominant tribe in southern New England. With the French in Canada focused to the west on the fur trade from the Great Lakes, only the alliance of the Dutch and Mohawk in New York stood in their way.

Boston traders had tried unsuccessfully to lure the Mohawk away from the Dutch in 1640 by selling firearms, but the Dutch had countered with their own weapons and in the process dramatically escalated the level of violence in the Beaver Wars which were raging along the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. The barrier fell when the English captured New York from the Dutch in 1664 and signed their own treaty with the Mohawk. Between 1640 to 1675 new waves of settlers arrived in New England and pushed west into native lands. While the Pilgrims usually had paid or asked permission, the Puritans were inclined to take. There was an especially large amount of immigration after 1660 when the Restoration ended the military dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, and Puritans were in extreme disfavor with the new English monarchy of Charles II. At the same time there had been a fundamental change in New England’s economy. After the Mohawk treaty, many of the Boston fur traders left New England and moved west to Albany near the Iroquois. No longer restrained by the possibility of war with the English, the Iroquois fell on the Algonquin in western New England and began driving them east at the same time English settlement was rapidly swallowing lands in the east.

By 1665 Native Americans in southern New England were simply in the way. The English no longer needed their wilderness skills to survive, and fishing and other commerce had largely replaced the fur and wampum trade which had been the mainstays of the colonial economy during the early years. While there was nothing to equal the devastation of 1614-20, the native population had continued to decline from continuing epidemics: 1633, 1635, 1654, 1661 and 1667. The Puritans’ “humane” solution to this after 1640 was the missionary work of John Eliot and others to convert the native population. How “humane” these efforts actually were is a matter of opinion. Converts were settled in small communities of “Praying Indians” at Natick, Nonantum, Punkapog, and other locations. Natives even partially resistant to the Puritan version of Christianity were unwelcome. Attendance at church was mandatory, clothing and hair changed to proper colonial styles, and even a hint of traditional ceremony and religion was grounds for expulsion. Tribal culture and authority disintegrated in the process.

Even Massasoit fell in with the adoption of English customs and before his death in 1661, petitioned the General Court at Plymouth to give English names to his two sons. The eldest Wamsutta was renamed Alexander, and his younger brother Metacomet became Philip. Married to Queen Weetamoo of Pocasset, Alexander became grand sachem of the Wampanoag upon the death of his father. The English were not pleased with his independent attitude, and invited him to Plymouth for “talks.” After eating a meal in Duxbury, Alexander became violently ill and died. The Wampanoag were told he died of a fever, but the records from the Plymouth Council at the time make note of an expense for poison “to rid ourselves of a pest.” The following year Metacomet (Wewesawanit) succeeded his murdered brother as grand sachem of the Wampanoag eventually becoming known to the English as King Philip.

Metacomet aka King Philip

Philip does not appear to have been a man of hate, but under his leadership, the Wampanoag attitude towards the colonists underwent a drastic change. Realizing that the English would not stop until they had taken everything, Philip was determined to prevent further expansion of English settlement, but this was impossible for the Wampanoag by themselves since they were down to only 1,000 people by this time. Travelling from his village at Mount Hope, Philip began to slowly enlist other tribes for this purpose. Even then it was a daunting task, since the colonists in New England by this time outnumbered the natives better than two to one (35,000 versus 15,000). Philip made little attempt to disguise his purpose, and through a network of spies (Praying Indians), the English knew what he was doing. Summoned to Taunton in 1671, Philip listened to accusations and signed an agreement to give up the Wampanoag’s firearms. However, he did not stay around for dinner afterwards, and the guns were never surrendered.

As English encroachment continued, Philip eventually won promises of support from the Nipmuc, Pocumtuc and Narragansett. Because the Narragansett needed time to build a supply of ammunition and guns, it appears the uprising was planned for the spring of 1676. Meanwhile, the English saw what was coming, and the tension was becoming unbearable. In January, 1675 the body of John Sassamon, a Christian Indian informer, was discovered in the ice of Assowampset Pond. Three Wampanoag warriors were arrested, tried for the murder, and hanged. After this provocation, Philip could no longer restrain his warriors, and amid rumors the English intended to arrest him, Philip held a council of war at Mount Hope. He could count on the support of most of the Wampanoag except for those on the off-shore islands. For similar reasons, the Nauset on Cape Cod would also remain neutral, but most Nipmuc and Pocumtuc were ready for war along with some of the Pennacook and Abenaki. The Narragansett, however, had not completed preparations and had been forced to sign a treaty with the English.

In late June a Wampanoag was killed near the English settlement at Swansea, and the King Philip’s War (1675-76) began. The Wampanoag attacked Swansea and ambushed an English relief column. Other raids struck near Taunton, Tiverton, and Dartmouth. Despite being forewarned and their advantage in numbers, the English were in serious trouble. Well-armed with firearms (some French, but many acquired through trade with the English themselves), the Wampanoag and their allies even had their own forges and gunsmiths. Drawing from virtually every tribe in New England, Philip commanded more than 1,000 warriors, and even the tribes who chose to remain neutral were often willing to provide food and shelter. Only the Mohegan under Oneko (Uncas’ son) remained loyal to the English. Particularly disturbing to the colonists was the defection of most of the “Praying Indians.” When Puritan missionaries attempted to gather their converts, only 500 could be found. The others had either taken to the woods or joined Philip. Their loyalty still suspect, the Praying Indians who remained were sent to the islands of Boston Harbor and other “plantations of confinement.”

The English assembled an army at Plymouth in July and marched on Philip’s village at Mount Hope (near Bristol, Rhode Island) burning every Wampanoag village enroute. They trapped the Wampanoag in a swamp on Pocasset Neck, but they managed to evacuate their women and children by canoe across the bay to the Pocasset of Queen Weetamoo (Alexander’s widow). Philip and his warriors then slipped away leaving the English besieging an empty swamp! Leaving his women and children under the care of the still-neutral Narragansett, Philip moved west into the Nipmuc country of central Massachusetts. Although English accounts usually credit Philip as being present at almost every battle in the war, this would have been physically impossible. Philip provided political leadership, while others like Anawon, Tuspaquin, Sagamore Sam (Nipmuc), and Sancumachu (Pocumtuc) led the actual attacks. From Philip’s new location in the west, the war then resumed at an even more furious pace than before. The Nipmuc raided Brookfield and Worcester and then combined with the Pocumtuc to attack settlements in the Connecticut River Valley. After a raid at Northfield, a relief force under Captain Beers was ambushed south of town and more than half killed. Three survivors were captured and burned at the stake. In September Deerfield and Hadley were attacked forcing the colonists to abandon their homes and fort-up together in Deerfield. Facing a winter without food, 80 soldiers under Captain Thomas Lothrop were dispatched with 18 teamsters to gather the abandoned crops near Hadley. All went well until the return journey, when the expedition was ambushed by the 700 Pocumtuc at Bloody Brook south of Deerfield. Another English force with 60 Mohegan warriors arrived too late and found only seven survivors.

Having dealt with the northern settlements on the Connecticut River, Philip’s warriors began to work south attacking Hatfield, Springfield, Westfield, and Northampton (three separate times). Even with the help of the Mohegan, the English in western Massachusetts were hard-pressed, and by late fall, they were on the defensive and confined to a handful of forts. By this time Philip felt confident enough to return to the Narragansett in Rhode Island and collect his women and children. Travelling west to the Connecticut River, he moved north to the vicinity of Deerfield and then west into the Berkshire Mountains where he established his winter quarters just across the border from Massachusetts at Hoosick, New York. Gaining new recruits from among the Sokoki (and even a few Mahican and Mohawk), the population of Philip’s village at Hoosick grew to more than 2,000, and the winter of 1675-76 was a long, terrible battle with hunger.

For obvious reasons, the English considered neutral tribes who helped the Wampanoag as enemies, but their efforts to stop this widened the war. At the outbreak of the fighting, the Narragansett had gathered themselves in single large fort in a swamp near Kingston, Rhode Island. Although it appeared they were on the verge of annulling their treaty with the English and entering the war on the side of Philip, the only thing they had been guilty of during the first six months of the conflict was providing shelter for Wampanoag women, children, and other non-combatants. In December of 1675, Governor Josiah Winslow of Plymouth led a 1,000 man army with 150 Mohegan scouts against the Narragansett. The English demanded the Narragansett surrender of any Wampanoag who remained and join them against Philip. When this was refused, the English attacked. Known as the Great Swamp Fight (December 19, 1675), the battle almost destroyed the Narragansett. In all they lost more than 600 warriors and at least 20 of their sachems, but the English also lost heavily to and was in no condition to pursue the Narragansett who escaped. Led by their sachem, Canonchet, many of the survivors joined Philip at Hoosick.

Philip in the meantime had attempted to bring the Mohawk into the war against New England. New York’s governor Edmund Andros was a royal appointee with little love for the Puritans in Massachusetts and at first kept his colony neutral. This changed when he learned of Philip’s efforts to enlist the Iroquois. From long experience, the Iroquois were not comfortable with the presence of a large group of heavily-armed Algonquin on their borders (they had been at war with them for more than a century), and after several Mohawk were killed near Hoosick under questionable circumstances, refused Philip’s request. Encouraged by Governor Andros, the Mohawk became hostile and forced Philip to leave New York. He relocated east to Squawkeag in the Connecticut Valley near the border of Massachusetts and Vermont. Philip did not wait for warmer weather to resume the war. In February he launched a new series of raids throughout New England using his most effective weapon …fire. Victims included: Lancaster, Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, Warwick (Rhode Island), Marlborough, Rehoboth, Plymouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Sudbury, Brookfield, Scituate, Bridgewater, and Namasket.

As English soldiers rushed about trying to cope, they fell victim to ambushes. In March Canonchet and the Narragansett almost wiped out one command (60 killed), and in another fight shortly afterwards killed 70 more. With these successes Philip was able to gather a large number of warriors at Squawkeag, but he was unable to feed them. Although he was able to raid the English with impunity and fend off the Mohawk, Philip desperately needed to clear English settlement from the area so his people could plant corn and feed themselves. For this reason, the Narragansett and Pocumtuc joined forces in attacks on Northfield and Deerfield during the spring of 1676. Both raids were ultimately repulsed with heavy losses. Meanwhile, Philip’s followers needed seed corn for spring planting. Canonchet volunteered in April for the dangerous task of returning to Rhode Island where the Narragansett had a secret cache. He succeeded, but on the return journey was captured and executed by the Mohegan.

Canonchet’s death seemed to dishearten Philip and marked the turning point of the war. Philip moved his headquarters to Mount Wachusett, but the English had finally begun to utilize Praying Indians as scouts and became more effective. In May Captain William Turner attacked a fishing camp at Turner’s Falls killing over 400 (including the Pocumtuc sachem Sancumachu). Before forced to retreat by superior numbers, the English also killed several gunsmiths and destroyed Philip’s forges. Turner lost 43 men on his retreat to Hatfield , but the damage had been done. Philip’s confederacy began to break up, and it was everyone for himself. Some Nipmuc and Pocumtuc accepted an offer of sanctuary by New York and settled with the Mahican at Schaghticook. Others joined forces with the Sokoki (western Abenaki) and moved north to Cowasuck, Missisquoi, and Odanak (St. Francois) in Quebec. Philip and the Wampanoag, however, chose to return to their homeland in southeast Massachusetts.

Throughout the summer the Wampanoag were hunted down by Captain Benjamin Church’s rangers and Praying Indian scouts. Philip went into hiding near Mount Hope, but Queen Awashonks of the Sakonett surrendered and switched sides. On August 1st Philip escaped during an attack on his village, but the English captured his wife and son who were sent as prisoners to Martha’s Vineyard. Five days later, the Pocasset were caught near Taunton, and Weetamoo (Alexander’s widow) drowned while trying to escape. The English cut off her head and put it on display in Taunton. Philip and Anawon remained in hiding in the swamp near Mount Hope until betrayed by an informer, John Alderman. Guided by Alderman, Benjamin Church’s rangers surrounded Philip on August 12th. Alderman shot and killed Philip (for which he was given one of Philip’s hands as a trophy). Philip’s corpse was beheaded and quartered. His head was displayed on a pole at Plymouth for 25 years. Anawon was captured on August 28th and later killed by a mob, and Tuspaquin was executed by firing squad after he surrendered. Philip’s wife and son were reportedly sold as slaves to the West Indies, but it appears they were instead exiled from Massachusetts and joined the Sokoki at Odanak.

The war should have ended with Philip’s death, but peace treaties were not signed for another two years. Meanwhile, the English continued to hunt down Philip’s allies and those who had helped them. An expedition under Captain Richard Waldon attacked the Nashua in the midst of peace negotiations during 1676 killing 200. The prisoners were sold as slaves. Samuel Mosely followed this with an unprovoked attack on the neutral Pennacook. Other expeditions against the Androscoggin and Ossipee finally drew the Kennebec and Penobscot of the eastern Abenaki into the war. In November, 1676 an English army attacked Squawkeag and destroyed the corn needed for the coming winter. The Sokoki withdrew north to the protection of the French in Canada, but the English had provoked the Abenaki and Sokoki into at least 50 years of hostility.

With Philip and most of their leaders dead, the Wampanoag were nearly exterminated. Only 400 survived the war. The Narragansett and Nipmuc had similar losses, and although small bands continued to live along the Connecticut River until the 1800s, the Pocumtuc disappeared as an organized group. For the English, the war was also costly: 600 killed and more than half of 90 settlements attacked with 13 destroyed. Edward Randolph, an agent of the crown, estimated 3,000 natives were killed, but his estimate appears to have been very conservative. From a pre-war native population in southern New England of 15,000, only 4,000 were left in 1680, and the harsh peace terms imposed by the English placed them in total subjugation. In what has been called the Great Dispersal, the Algonquins in southern New England fled either to the Sokoki and French in Canada, or west to the Delaware and Iroquois.

Except for the villages on the off-shore islands which had remained neutral, the surviving mainland Wampanoag after the war were relocated with the Sakonnet or mixed with the Nauset in Praying Villages in western Barnstable County. The Wampanoag community on Martha’s Vineyard has persisted to the present day, although the one on Nantucket was destroyed by an unknown epidemic in 1763. The mainland Wampanoag became increasingly concentrated near Mashpee, but Massachusetts withdrew recognition during the 1800s. Without benefit of a treaty with the United States, only the Wampanoag at Gay Head have been able to gain federal recognition.


National Museum of the American Indian

Michele Felice Corné (1752–1845), "The Landing of the Pilgrims" (detail), 1803. (U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Reception Rooms)

“The antidote to feel-good history is not feel-bad history, but honest and inclusive history.” —James W. Loewen, Plagues & Pilgrims: The Truth about the First Thanksgiving

The Thanksgiving story you know and the one I know are most likely the same. It’s the story deeply rooted in America’s curriculum—the one that inspires arguably the most important and tradition-filled holiday in American culture. We’re taught that in 1620 the Pilgrims fled harsh religious suppression in Britain, sailed across the Atlantic, and in December stepped ashore at Plymouth Rock, in what is now Massachusetts. With little food and no shelter, the colonists struggled to survive a brutal winter until a friendly Indian, Squanto, came along and showed them how to cultivate crops. Their first harvest resulted in a feast, as the Pilgrims gave thanks to the kind Indians for helping to bring the colony back to life.

This version of Thanksgiving, while pleasant, isn’t terribly accurate. Told from a perspective that frames the Pilgrims as the main characters, the story leaves out major details, glorifying the Pilgrims’ endeavor and the holiday it birthed, forcing the Wampanoag Indians into forgotten roles. It also erases a monumentally sad history. When we pay homage to the Pilgrims and their bravery, and react to the tragic background of America's founding myth with silence, we essentially support a mindset that only some people’s history matters.

Jennie Augusta Brownscombe (1850–1936), "The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth," 1914. Collection of Pilgrim Hall Museum. Not all mythical history is verbal. The Plains Indian headdresses worn by Brownscombe's Wampanoag leaders are probably enough said about "The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth." Notwithstanding the shirtless-in-December figure on shore in Corné's "Landing of the Pilgrims" (top), William Bradford, the governor of Plymouth Colony, wrote in his journal that it was four months before the Pilgrims saw the first Indians. (Pilgrim Hall Museum)

The true history of Thanksgiving begins with the Indians.

About four years before the Pilgrims anchored off Massachusetts, British fishermen had already started making their way through New England, storming through Indian towns to kidnap Native people for profit in the slavery trade. Although it’s often left out of textbooks, this series of intrusions was the catalyst to what is probably a most important event in this nation’s history, without which Europeans would not have been able to settle on top of the millions of Native people who already lived in America—at least, not as fast: epidemic illness.

Before 1492, the Western Hemisphere was largely isolated, sparing its indigenous peoples from diseases the rest of the world succumbed to time and time again. But this lack of contact prevented Natives of the Americas from developing any type of immunity to European, Asian, and African pathogens. When Europeans started trekking through Indian towns, they brought sickness with them. Indians died at an alarming rate, making it substantially easier for colonists to overpower entire villages—well, what was left of them.

The Pilgrims already believed they were part of God’s plan. Finding empty villages as 90 percent—yes, 90 percent—of America’s Indians perished in front of them only furthered Europeans’ sense of their destiny, influencing them to continue the colonization westward. As Jolene Rickard (Tuscarora) and Paul Chaat Smith (Comanche) wrote in Our Peoples: Giving Voice to Our Histories, one of the opening exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, “That initial explosion of death is one of the greatest tragedies in human history because it was unintended, and unavoidable, and even inevitable. But what happened in its wake was not.”

One people who famously suffered from the onslaught of disease were the Wampanoag, a nation made up of 69 villages scattered throughout present-day Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Skilled hunters, gatherers, farmers, and fishers during spring and summer, the Wampanoag moved inland to more protected shelter during the colder months of the year. Like indigenous groups everywhere, the Wampanoag had a reciprocal relationship with nature and believed that as long as they gave thanks to the bountiful world, it would give back to them. Long before the arrival of the Pilgrims, the Wampanoag held frequent Thanksgiving-like celebrations, giving thanks in the form of feasts and ceremonial games.

Exposed to new diseases, the Wampanoag lost entire villages. Only a fraction of their nation survived. By the time the Pilgrim ships landed in 1620, the remaining Wampanoag were struggling to fend off the Narragansett, a nearby Native people who were less affected by the plague and now drastically outnumbered them.

For a moment of history, the interests of the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag aligned. When the Pilgrims landed in New England, after failing to make their way to the milder mouth of the Hudson, they had little food and no knowledge of the new land. The Wampanoag suggested a mutually beneficial relationship, in which the Pilgrims would exchange European weaponry for Wampanoag for food. With the help of an English-speaking Patuxet Indian named Tisquantum (not Squanto he spoke English because he was kidnapped and sold in the European slave trade before making his way back to America), the Pilgrims produced a bountiful supply of food that summer. For their part, the Wampanoag were able to defend themselves against the Narragansett. The feast of indigenous foods that took place in October 1621, after the harvest, was one of thanks, but it more notably symbolized the rare, peaceful coexistence of the two groups.

The events that followed in New England also depart from the Thanksgiving ideal we celebrate. To read what happened to the New England Indians later in the 17th century, see the museum's earlier post Do Indians Celebrate Thanksgiving?

Lindsay McVay is a senior at the University of Central Florida, majoring in writing and rhetoric. Her professional experience includes writing grants for nonprofits contributing to blogs, especially Book Baristas and designing websites for Florida independent publishers. During the fall of 2017, Lindsay has worked as an intern in Marketing and Communications at the National Museum of the American Indian.


Assista o vídeo: Paula Peters: Why Wampanoag truths and traditions are so crucial to the Mayflower story (Julho 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Moogucage

    Parabéns, que excelente resposta.

  2. Corbmac

    Esta frase é simplesmente incomparável :), eu gosto)))

  3. Gannon

    What a graceful phrase

  4. Kubas

    Isso é apenas condicional, não mais

  5. Jugul

    Na minha opinião, este é um tópico muito interessante. Convido todos a participarem ativamente da discussão.



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